CryptoURANUS Economics: August 2019

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Saturday, August 31, 2019

Reference-Post: Xilinx ISE-Source-File-Types

PWD:ISE-Source-File-Types
Xilinx Source-File-Types ISE
Source File Types
To use and manage source files in Project Navigator, you must add the source files to the project. You can either create new source files in Project Navigator and automatically add them to the project, or you can add existing source files to the project. Following is a list of the supported source types. Some source types may not be available, depending on your design properties (top-level module type, target device, and synthesis tool).
Note For a list of all the file types generated by the ISE® software, see the "Xilinx® Development System Files" appendix in the Command Line Tools User Guide.
File Type
Extension
Icon
Description
New Source Wizard Behavior/Tool Launched
Block RAM Memory Map (BMM File)
.bmm
Image

Used in PowerPC® and MicroBlaze™ processor designs to describe the organization of Block RAM memory.
Note Only one BMM Module is allowed per project.
Opens the file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box. The CPU executable code is automatically inserted in the configuration file during design implementation.
ChipScope Definition and Connection (CDC File)
.cdc  
Image
Contains generic information about the trigger and data ports of the ChipScope™ core.

Adds the file to the project. Double-click the CDC file in the Hierarchy pane of the Design panel to run the implementation process and launch the ChipScope Pro Core Inserter. For details, see the ChipScope Pro Tool Debugging Overview.
Note  The ChipScope Pro tool must be installed for this source type to be available.
Electronic Data Interchange Format (EDIF)
.edn, .edf, .edif, .sedif
Image
Specifies the design netlist in an industry standard file format.

N/A
Must be generated by a third-party design entry tool and added to the project.
Note  You can only add an EDIF file as a top-level module, not as a lower-level module. If you are using hierarchical EDIF files, lower-level EDIF files are automatically processed during the implementation process.
ELF
.elf
Image

Contains an executable CPU code image.
Note  Only one ELF file is allowed per project.

N/A
Must be generated by the Data2MEM command line tool and added to the project.
Embedded Processor
.xmp
Image
Embedded microprocessor project file created with Xilinx Platform Studio.
Launches the Xilinx Platform Studio in which you can define the embedded processor system portion of your design. For details, see the Embedded Development Kit Documentation.
Implementation Constraints File
also known as User Constraints File (UCF)
.ucf
Image
Contains user-specified logical constraints.

Adds the file to the project. Double-click the UCF file in the Hierarchy pane of the Design panel, or double-click a Constraints Entry process in the Processes pane to open the file.
You can assign multiple UCFs to the top-level module. For details, see Constraints Entry Methods.
IP (Architecture Wizard)
.xaw
Image
Contains predefined logic functions that configure architecture features or modules.
Launches one of the Xilinx Architecture Wizards in which you can define your IP. For details, see Working with Architecture Wizard IP.
IP (CORE Generator)
.xco
Image
Contains predefined logic functions.
Launches one of the Xilinx IP core customization tools in which you can define your IP. For details, see Working with CORE Generator™ IP.
Memory Definition (MEM File)
.mem
Image

Used to define the contents of memory (RAMB4 and RAMB16).
Note Only one MEM file is allowed per project.
Opens the file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box. The CPU executable code is automatically inserted in the configuration file during design implementation.
Schematic
.sch
Image
Contains a schematic design.
Opens the schematic file in the Project Navigator Workspace. For details, see the Schematic Overview.
System Generator module
.sgp
Image
Contains Digital Signal Processing (DSP) system module created with System Generator for DSP.

N/A
Must be added to the project.
Targeted device, package, and speed grade
N/A
Image
Shows the targeted device, package, and speed grade.
N/A
Undefined
N/A
Image
Contains an instantiated module that has not been added to the ISE project but is referenced by a source file in the ISE project.
N/A
User Document
Multiple file types
Image
Contains user information that is not implemented with the project, for example, supporting documentation.

N/A
Must be added to the project.
Verilog Module
.v
Image
Contains Verilog design code.
Opens the file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box.
Verilog Test Fixture
.v
Image
Defines the stimulus to the ports of an HDL file.
Prompts you to associate the file with a Verilog source module and then opens a skeleton test bench file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box.
VHDL Library
N/A
Image
Contains a collection of VHDL packages.
Adds a new directory to the vhdl library directory in the Libraries panel.
VHDL Module
.vhd
Image
Contains VHDL design code.
Opens the file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box.
VHDL Package
.vhd
Image
Contains definitions, macros, sub-routines, supplemental types, subtypes, constants, functions, and other files.
Opens the file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box.
VHDL Test Bench
.vhd  
Image
Defines the stimulus to the ports of an HDL file.
Prompts you to associate the file with a VHDL source and then opens a skeleton test bench file in the text editor you specify in the Editors page of the Preferences dialog box.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

ZCash (ZEC): Defined in CryptoCurrency


ZCash (ZEC): Defined in CryptoCurrency is a decentralized open-source cryptocurrency that ensures privacy and selective transparency of transactions. 

Zcash coin payments are published on the public blockchain, but the sender, receiver and transfer amount remain confidential. 



The level of anonymity of Zcash is noted by many well-known companies and individuals. For example, WikiLeaks began accepting donations in Cash, Edward Snowden called cryptocurrency the most interesting alternative to Bitcoin, and Europol officially expressed concern about the increasing popularity of cryptocurrency. 


What is Zcash?
Zcash cryptocurrency is based on the protocol of Bitcoin, however, it supports its own blockchain and currency token. Like Bitcoin, Zcash cryptocurrency can be sent around the world and exchanged for other crypto or fiat currencies through online exchanges, personal transfers etc.

The emission capacity of Zcash coin makes out 21 million coins, new blocks with the size of 2 Mb are being created every 2.5 minutes. The block reward makes out 12.5 ZEC and will be reduced twice every 4 years starting from the moment of launch in October 2016.

The main technical peculiarity of Zcash is the use of the zero-knowledge proof, which allows to confirm transactions without disclosing additional information and makes the use of the crypto currency totally anonymous.

History:
In 2014, zerocoin developers from Johns Hopkins University and cryptographic teams from Massachusetts Institute of technology, Israel Institute of Technology and tel Aviv University developed the zerocash Protocol. Together they were able to improve the original design, making it more efficient and more private.
"Thanks to the New zerocash Protocol, unlike Zerocoin, users can make direct payments to each other using a much more efficient cryptographic Protocol that hides not only the origin but also the amount of the payment"
The zcash for the project was officially announced as the Executive Director Zuko Wilcox. January 20, 2016 as the evolution of the Existing zerocoin project (work of Matthew green, Ian Mayer, Christina Harman, Aviel D. Rubin, Johns Hopkins University, Department of computer science).

With the use of the new Protocol appeared independent cryptocurrency Zcash (ZEC), ceased to be a "Supplement" to bitcoin. On October 28, 2016, Zuko Wilcox held the official" cryptographic ceremony " of the Zcash launch.


Zero-knowledge proof
Zero-knowledge proof is a cryptographic principle that allows to check transactions with encrypted data of the sender’s address, receiver’s address and the transferred amount.

Zcash coin uses a specific type of the zero-knowledge proof that is called zk-SNARKs. For that end, in a Zcash transaction a data string (“key tuple”) is generated by the sender, which consists of a spending key, viewing key and billing address.

A sender cannot generate this string unless he possesses spending keys or the values of sending and receiving are not equal. Zk-SNARKs also creates a unique nullifying function, which marks the tokens as spent after the transaction completion.

Usually, a collection of a billing address, viewing and spending keys is encrypted and unavailable for users. In this way, the transaction check with the keeping the confidentiality of its details is carried out. However, Zcash can carry out public transaction too, providing all data of keys in this case.

KomodoCoin: Defined in CryptoCurrency



KomodoCoin:
Defined in CryptoCurrency



Komodo(KMD) is a cryptocurrency project that focuses on providing anonymity through zero knowledge proofs and security through a novel Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol.




Description
Komodo Platform Vision & Technology, Amsterdam June 2017
Komodo is a new standard for cryptocurrency security and anonymity. Protected by Zcash Zero Knowledger proofs, users can make 100% untraceable transactions.

The SuperNET team has also developed a hand full of individual tools that will stand together with Komodo to form a complete ecosystem with advanced functionalities like decentralized trading and mixing. Based on bitcoin dark and Zcash principles.


A new mining algorithm, dPoW (delayed proof-of-work), uses bitcoin network hash power- Anonymous team, but the main developer is well-kinown in the community and has frequently worked with the Super.NET project.

Komodo holders receive 5% annual percentage rate (APR) revenue. Every KMD holder will receive it, and it is indeed automatic as there are no settings to turn on, no modes to activate or no passwords to unlock. The 5% APR will remain until the max supply of 200M KMD is reached. Only T-address balances will get the APR.


The Komodo Platform was forked from Zcash by the SuperNET team and it is the evolution of the BitcoinDark cryptocurrency.

The KomodoCoin blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions.

They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol. Komodo presents its decentralized (ICO) platform (dICO).

This technology guarantees coin developers a transparent coin offering while maintaining investor privacy through Komodo’s built-in privacy features.

For the first time in crypto history it’s possible to issue and distribute native cryptocurrencies without a trusted third party.


So a dICO doesn’t differentiate from other ICOs by decentralization only, it also needs Komodo Platform’s Jumblr technology to guarantee complete privacy for all ICO parties.

Knowing that dICO is on a Komodo Platform don’t require high fees as each asset chain is an independent blockchain secured by dPoW, enabling all dICO transaction fees to be paid with the dICO coin.

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